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Please reply to both the discussions. Each response 150 words each`. 2 references each less than 5 years.
Reply 1
According to the Centers for Disease Control (2020), death by suicide is the third leading cause of death among 10-24-year-olds, with many adolescents attempting suicide but unsuccessful. A study by Bridge et al. (2018) found that the suicide rate among Black children under 13 years doubled the rate for white children in the same age group. Some risk factors for suicide ideations in children include adverse childhood events, discrimination or prejudice, family history of suicide, being bullied, and chronic medical conditions such as epilepsy and chronic pain (Middleton, 2021; O’Rourke et al., 2018). In males, socioeconomic factors such as low income, occupation, and unemployment are some of the suicide risk factors.
The suicide ideation model includes four categories of risk factors: psychological, biological, cognitive, and environmental. These four risk factors interact with each other, lending their relative weights to the development of suicidal ideation. It is possible to predict certain normative crises or events that may make suicide a more likely choice because the normative events vary by age and developmental level; an understanding of the life -span is helpful to the cause of suicide. This suicide ideation model provides a framework for systematically examining each life span and evaluating a given individual’s potential for suicide, as revealed by the variables in the model.
The lifespan developmental theory provides a suitable framework for understanding why suicidal thoughts and behavior may vary across ages (Stoliker et al., 2020). This theory posits that late-life suicidal ideation is linked to restrictions and adversities associated with aging, such as physical illness, interpersonal loss, cognitive impairment, and other age-related changes, whereby individuals who are not able to adapt will be at a greater risk for suicidal ideation. Research has highlighted that individuals aged 60 and older are among the highest risk of suicide-related death in general (Stoliker et al., 2020).
In older adults, factors such as spousal bereavement, functional impairment, physical illness, and social isolation increase the risk of suicide (Conejero et al., 2018). Consequently, approaches to preventing suicidal ideation from an individual include encounters in the health care system; this will enable more individuals to access care for psychiatric problems associated with suicide, such as depression. Efforts to coordinate care among programs that address mental health, substance use, and physical health can also increase access to care.
Lastly, different settings may use different tools based on whether the organization is going to provide comprehensive care after the client is found to be at risk. One of the tools most preferred in a setting such as an outpatient behavioral health care clinic is the use of the SAFE-T. It offers a thorough assessment of the nature and extent of suicidal thoughts and behaviors. This tool can be the most essential for older and aging adults because it focuses on exploring four major items, which include; ideation, plan, behaviors, and intent. Another tool is the Columbia-Suicide Severity Rate Scale (C-SSRS), which can be used for children and youth (Joint Commission, 2018). It can be used in many settings, including inpatient, medical, and outpatient behavioral health. Its main aim is to identify suicide attempts and the full range of evidence-based behavior and ideation (Joint Commission, 2018). In addition, the Ask Suicide Screening Question (ASQ) toolkit is a standardized suicide risk screening tool validated for use with medical patients of all ages (Horowitz et al., 2020).
References
Bridge, J. A., Horowitz, L. M., Fontanella, C. A., Sheftall, A. H., Greenhouse, J., Kelleher, K. J., & Campo, J. V. (2018). Age-related racial disparity in suicide rates among US youths from 2001 through 2015. JAMA pediatrics, 172(7), 697-699. DOI:10.1001/jamapediatrics.2018.0399
Centers for Disease Control, (2020). Suicide prevention. https://www.psychiatry.org/patients-families/suicide-prevention
Conejero, I., Olié, E., Courtet, P., & Calati, R. (2018). Suicide in older adults: current perspectives. Clinical interventions in aging, 13, 691. DOI: 10.2147/CIA.S130670
Horowitz, L. M., Snyder, D. J., Boudreaux, E. D., He, J. P., Harrington, C. J., Cai, J., … & Pao, M. (2020). Validation of the ask suicide-screening questions for adult medical inpatients: a brief tool for all ages. Psychosomatics, 61(6), 713–722. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psym.2020.04.008
Joint Commission. (2018). Suicide prevention resources to support Joint Commission accredited organizations’ implementation of NPSG 15.01. 01, revised November 2018. https://www.jointcommission.org/standards/national-patient-safety-goals/-/media/83ac7352b9ee42c9bda8d70ac2c00ed4.ashx
Middleton, L. J. (2021). Preventing physician suicide. https://www.aafp.org/pubs/afp/collections/taxonomy.suicide-risk-assessment.html
O’Rourke, M. C., Jamil, R. T., & Siddiqui, W. (2018). Suicide screening and prevention. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK531453/
Stoliker, B. E., Verdun-Jones, S. N., & Vaughan, A. D. (2020). The relationship between age and suicidal thoughts and attempted suicide among prisoners. Health & Justice, 8(1), 1-19. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40352-020-00117-3
Reply #2
Ideation Emerges Across the Lifespan
Examine how suicide ideation emerges across the lifespan without a current psychiatric mental health diagnosis:
Suicide ideations is when someone think about or want to kill she/he self. Passive suicide ideation is one someone has thought but has not formulated a plan. Active suicide ideation is when some has formulated a plan. According to the Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Caucasian American are the most at risk especially middle age to older men usually single or divorce (CDC,2022). Caucasian men preferences is a gun to the head or mouth. The next largest at risk is Non-Hispanic Native American Indian/Alaskans with the root cause alcoholism (CDC, 2022). Over the lifespan stats has proved that women attempts suicide more than three to five times more than man. But, men attempts are lethal cause more deaths.
Identify risk factors in different age groups for suicide. Socioeconomic status, psychosocial, developmental stage and other factors
Various factors can contribute to suicidal ideation (SI). SI can strike child, teens, old, young, rich, poor, famous or and everyday people. Race and ethnicity is not immune. Suicide thoughts strike when you’re feeling hopeless and out of control in your life and/or like it has no meaning or purpose. There are factors that make someone more vulnerable. But, no one is immune!
According to Shea (2017), as mental health providers the art of any interview is to identify the potential or the at-risk for SI.
Suicide Risk Factors:
There are a variety of risk factors for suicidal ideation and suicide, including
Having attempted suicide in the past
Having a mental health disorder
Feeling hopeless, isolated, and/or lonely
Not being married
Being gay, lesbian, bisexual, or transgender
Having served in the military
Having a chronic physical illness like cancer, diabetes, or a terminal disease
Having chronic pain
Having a traumatic brain injury
Having a family history of suicide
Having a drug or alcohol use disorder
Having experienced childhood abuse or trauma
Living in a rural area
Having access to firearms
Contrast different evidence-based assessment tools to utilized in each age group for prevention
When assessing young child and youth, as mental health provider, must take under consideration the home environment and interaction with their parents, teachers, sibling and personalities at school that she or he will engage with. The brief suicide safety assessment (BSSA) helps the pediatric providers decide whether it is safe to send the patient home, or whether there is a need for immediate intervention. It’s different from the screening tool. It simply identifies risk and what is the next step in child or at –risk youth.
In contrast with young adults (18-30), the mental health provider is assessing for more social and interpersonal relationships that could trigger or unresolved mental issues such as depression or undiagnosed bipolar.
Older adults () 65 and older) suicide ideation various concerns with change of life, psychically not able to do the things once could do, losing members of family (spouses and siblings, friends due to age). According to Conejero et. al (2018), the main reason is being widow. As mental health provider, we must be aware of recent lose or one that occurs several year prior. Now that older adult is slowing down in life or retire. She or he have the time to grief and it can lead to hopelessness, depression and SI.
Examples of a suicidal ideation scale include:
Ask-Suicide Screening (ASQ) Questions: A set of four questions for children and adults designed to detect early signs of suicide; it takes only 20 seconds to administer (Aguinaldo et al., 2021). This more of prevention tool. Practitioners must further investigate the likelihood of the threat and the intentions of SI.
Beck Scale for Suicide Ideation (BSS): A set of 19 questions for adults that takes five to 10 minutes to administer. According to (Esfahani et. Al.,2019), a study was done in Tehran on the effectiveness of the BSS and the study had unique finding that participants scored lower on the probability of SI and ,it’s effectiveness. It was concluded that BSS is highly used and highly effective in the United States and other English speaking countries. It’ was more cultural based on what country it used and based on certain populations within the country.( Esfahani et. Al., 2019)
Columbia Suicide Severity Rating Scale (C-SSRS): A short questionnaire that is designed so that you don’t need formal mental healthcare training to administer it. It’s a tool that rates five areas: affective, cognitive, behavioral, contextual and interpersonal/social.
Suicide Probability Scale (SPS): Measures well-being and coping behavior using a four-point scale; takes five to 10 minutes to complete. According to Tatman et. al (2018) ,extensive studies have been performed on the effectiveness and reliability of this scale. They have just recently updated their finding that this tool is effective and more reliable than in previous years
References:
Aguinaldo, L. D., Sullivant, S., Lanzillo, E. C., Ross, A., He, J.-P., Bradley-Ewing, A., Bridge, J. A., Horrowitz, L. M., & Wharff, E. A. (2021). Validation of the Ask Suicide-Screening Questions (ASQ) with Youth in Outpatient Specialty and Primary Care Clinics. General Hospital Psychiatry. Retrieved November 03, 2022, from https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33310014/
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2022). Suicide Data and Statistics. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved November 03, 2022, from https://www.cdc.gov/suicide/suicide-data-statistics.html
Conejero, I., Olié, E., Courtet, P., & Calati, R. (2018). Suicide in older adults: current perspectives. Clinical interventions in aging, 13, 691–699. https://doi.org/10.2147/CIA.S130670
Esfahani, M., Hashemi, Y., & Alavi, K. (2019). Psychometric assessment of beck scale for suicidal ideation (BSSI) in general population in Tehran. Medical journal of the Islamic Republic of Iran, 29, 268.
Shea, S. C. (2017). Psychiatric Interviewing: The Art of Understanding (3rd ed.) Elsevier
Tatman, S. M., Greene, A. L., & Karr, L. C. (2018). Use of the Suicide Probability Scale (SPS) with adolescents. Suicide & life-threatening behavior, 23(3), 188–203.I

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